Gertrude Stein lived from 1874-1946. Tender Buttons is largely read as an experiment in prosody and syntactical structures. Stein revivifies words in the Russian Formalist mode – by defamiliarizing them from their dictionary meanings, by emphasizing their material presence (like paint for her), and by experimenting with their sounds up against each other. Lyn Hejinian argues that this “thwarts an evolutionary response to [try to fully] understand language” because it calls attention to how language structures and intersects with epistemology. The poem emphasizes “like/as” – structures of relationality, as well as a proliferation of conjunctions. Stein’s work might also be compared to jazz in its “variations on a theme,” or “repetition with a difference,” also at work in the earlier story collection Three Lives (1909) and The Making of Americans (1925), where she writes that we mostly know and love each other by our repetitions.
By constantly inflecting and estranging language, Stein confronts our temptation to extract a word for its meaning from the sentence in which it is situated. Geoffrey G. O’Brien has asked why this bothers us in writing, but not in painting (as in Cubism – Stein was heavily influenced by the 1913 Armory Show of Modern Art in Paris, and was a great collector of Picasso, Matisse, and others, alongside her brother Leo – Picasso’s portrait of her marked a shift in his style toward masklike visages). O’Brien’s idea is that language is ordered and bound up in our expressions of the self and the sense we make of the world by articulation, whereas the visual is not – it is something we receive and sort daily. In this way, he argues, Stein “queers” language, gives us the experience of being “outside” a system, and “trains” us to anticipate that which we cannot anticipate without feeling merely frustrated or excluded. Stein herself said that after “a rose is a rose is a rose,” it was “the first time it was red again” (pun intended?). Like other American modernists, she takes as her subject everyday life and conversations. It would be interesting to put her in conversation with the time-stalling perspectival and judgmental emphasis of the novels of Henry James.
A CARAFE, THAT IS A BLIND GLASS.
A kind in glass and a cousin, a spectacle and nothing strange a single hurt color and an arrangement in a system to pointing. All this and not ordinary, not unordered in not resembling. The difference is spreading.
Out of kindness comes redness and out of rudeness comes rapid same question, out of an eye comes research, out of selection comes painful cattle. So then the order is that a white way of being round is something suggesting a pin and is it disappointing, it is not, it is so rudimentary to be analysed and see a fine substance strangely, it is so earnest to have a green point not to red but to point again.
A light white, a disgrace, an ink spot, a rosy charm.
A star glide, a single frantic sullenness, a single financial grass greediness.
Object that is in wood. Hold the pine, hold the dark, hold in the rush, make the bottom.
A piece of crystal. A change, in a change that is remarkable there is no reason to say that there was a time.
A woolen object gilded. A country climb is the best disgrace, a couple of practices any of them in order is so left.
SUPPOSE AN EYES.
Suppose it is within a gate which open is open at the hour of closing summer that is to say it is so.
All the seats are needing blackening. A white dress is in sign. A soldier a real soldier has a worn lace a worn lace of different sizes that is to say if he can read, if he can read he is a size to show shutting up twenty-four.
Go red go red, laugh white.
Suppose a collapse in rubbed purr, in rubbed purr get.
Little sales ladies little sales ladies little saddles of mutton.
Little sales of leather and such beautiful beautiful, beautiful beautiful.
ROASTBEEF; MUTTON; BREAKFAST; SUGAR; CRANBERRIES; MILK; EGGS; APPLE; TAILS; LUNCH; CUPS; RHUBARB; SINGLE; FISH; CAKE; CUSTARD; POTATOES; ASPARAGUS; BUTTER; END OF SUMMER; SAUSAGES; CELERY; VEAL; VEGETABLE; COOKING; CHICKEN; PASTRY; CREAM; CUCUMBER; DINNER; DINING; EATING; SALAD; SAUCE; SALMON; ORANGE; COCOA; AND CLEAR SOUP AND ORANGES AND OAT-MEAL; SALAD DRESSING AND AN ARTICHOKE; A CENTRE IN A TABLE.
In the inside there is sleeping, in the outside there is reddening, in the morning there is meaning, in the evening there is feeling. In the evening there is feeling. In feeling anything is resting, in feeling anything is mounting, in feeling there is resignation, in feeling there is recognition, in feeling there is recurrence and entirely mistaken there is pinching. All the standards have steamers and all the curtains have bed linen and all the yellow has discrimination and all the circle has circling. This makes sand.
Very well. Certainly the length is thinner and the rest, the round rest has a longer summer. To shine, why not shine, to shine, to station, to enlarge, to hurry the measure all this means nothing if there is singing, if there is singing then there is the resumption.
Kind height, kind in the right stomach with a little sudden mill.
Cunning shawl, cunning shawl to be steady.
In white in white handkerchiefs with little dots in a white belt all shadows are singular they are singular and procured and relieved.
No that is not the cows shame and a precocious sound, it is a bite.
Cut up alone the paved way which is harm. Harm is old boat and a likely dash.
Alas, alas the pull alas the bell alas the coach in china, alas the little put in leaf alas the wedding butter meat, alas the receptacle, alas the back shape of mussle, mussle and soda.
Pheasant and chicken, chicken is a peculiar third.
Alas a dirty word, alas a dirty third alas a dirty third, alas a dirty bird.
Alas a doubt in case of more go to say what it is cress. What is it. Mean. Potato. Loaves.
Stick stick call then, stick stick sticking, sticking with a chicken. Sticking in a extra succession, sticking in.
Chain-boats are merry, are merry blew, blew west, carpet.
Cutting shade, cool spades and little last beds, make violet, violet when.
In a plank, in a play sole, in a heated red left tree there is shut in specs with salt be where. This makes an eddy. Necessary.
Cream cut. Any where crumb. Left hop chambers.
Act so that there is no use in a centre. A wide action is not a width. A preparation is given to the ones preparing. They do not eat who mention silver and sweet. There was an occupation.
A whole centre and a border make hanging a way of dressing. This which is not why there is a voice is the remains of an offering. There was no rental.
Nothing aiming is a flower, if flowers are abundant then they are lilac, if they are not they are white in the centre.
Dance a clean dream and an extravagant turn up, secure the steady rights and translate more than translate the authority, show the choice and make no more mistakes than yesterday.
This means clearness, it means a regular notion of exercise, it means more than that, it means liking counting, it means more than that, it does not mean exchanging a line.
Why is there more craving than there is in a mountain. This does not seem strange to one, it does not seem strange to an echo and more surely is in there not being a habit. Why is there so much useless suffering. Why is there.
A pecking which is petting and no worse than in the same morning is not the only way to be continuous often.
A light in the moon the only light is on Sunday. What was the sensible decision. The sensible decision was that notwithstanding many declarations and more music, not even notwithstanding the choice and a torch and a collection, notwithstanding the celebrating hat and a vacation and even more noise than cutting, notwithstanding Europe and Asia and being overbearing, not even notwithstanding an elephant and a strict occasion, not even withstanding more cultivation and some seasoning, not even with drowning and with the ocean being encircling, not even with more likeness and any cloud, not even with terrific sacrifice of pedestrianism and a special resolution, not even more likely to be pleasing. The care with which the rain is wrong and the green is wrong and the white is wrong, the care with which there is a chair and plenty of breathing. The care with which there is incredible justice and likeness, all this makes a magnificent asparagus, and also a fountain.